Monday, October 31, 2011

Ubuntu Control Panel

Ubuntu Control Center

Seperti  halnya pada windows yang mempunyai control panel, jika anda menggunakan linux ubuntu control center ini fungsi nya hampir sama seperti control panel.




Ubuntu UCC control center or an application is inspired by the Mandriva Control Center that aims to centralize and organize in a simple and intuitive configuration tools, the main Ubuntu distribution of Linux. UCC uses all native applications in Ubuntu, but also makes use of third party applications as Hardinfo , Boot-up Manager , Gufw , Startup-Manager , jstest-gtk  and Font-manager -and the brand new VGA Switcher module that uses VGA-switc hero kernel 2.6.35.

Special thanks to Rodrigo Miguel, the application designer and maintainer of  VideoRam Info blog Linux Like

Posted version 0.6.1

New module - System status (displays summary of system hardware)
Removed dependencies of the program
Scrollbar in hardware module
Added Y-ppa-manager software module manages the PPAs
Added gnome-lirc infrared devices to manage
Added to nanny parental controls (parental control)
Sponsorship of CTIC
Interface based on new sources of ubuntu
Removed font-manager
bug-fixes


Langsung saja download software nya disini ini untuk yang 32bit
jika sudah anda download langsung saja anda install, jika ada pesan error maka install terlebih dahulu paket-paket yang di butuhkan. jika semua paket sudah terinstall maka ulangi lagi install UCC nya.
cukup mudah bukan, jika sudah terinstall langsung saja coba kita jalankan dan hasil nya seperti ini,
Jrenk..... jrenk......









Sumber : ctic.com

Repair Mikrotik RB532

Trouble shooting and repair mikrotik RB532r5 ( new version )
Langsung saja kita simak











Part List :
 Jika anda ingin versi Pdf nya silahkan download di sini untuk odl version nya atau RB532r3 silahkan anda download di sini

Thursday, October 27, 2011

Tempat Hot Untuk Bercinta

Jika anda dan pasangan sudah mulai kehilangan gairah bercinta, cobalah untuk tidak lagi monoton berada di tempat tidur atau kamar. Anda bersama pasangan perlu berganti tempat dan suasana yang hot supaya kembali membangkitkan gairah bercinta.
Erric Janssen, pakar seks, gender, dan reproduksi dari Universitas Indiana, Amerika Serikat, menyarankan Anda dan pasangan bisa mencari dan memanfaatkan area atau tempat lain. Menurut Erric, pilihan ini belum tentu sebuah tempat atau area yang mahal dan menguras kantong, tetapi bisa juga memanfaatkan bagian sekitar rumah yaitu:



Sudut Rumah
Setiap rumah memiliki sudut rumah yang sepintas sangat sempit areanya, namun bisa dimanfaatkan oleh Anda bersama pasangan. Meski posisi sudut ruangan ini sangat sempit dan kecil yang tidak memungkinkan untuk membuat posisi atau adegan bergulingan, tetapi sempitnya area ini justru melahirkan sensasi tersendiri. Misalnya Anda bersama pasangan bisa mencoba posisi bercinta sambil berdiri.

Garasi
Sering digunakan sebagai tempat khusus untuk kendaraan mobil, motor, atau sepeda yang dimiliki oleh sebuah rumah. Bila Anda memiliki garasi yang tertutup, tidak ada salahnya mencoba untuk bercinta didalamnya. Luasnya garasi yang memiliki banyak tempat untuk berbaring sehingga memungkinkan Anda untuk mencoba beberapa posisi berdiri. Pilihan lainnya, bercinta di kursi belakang mobil atau di atas sadel sepeda motor akan membangkitkan gairah dan permainan cinta Anda terasa lebih panas.

Dapur
Berfungsi sebagai tempat untuk memasak. Ruangan ini sangat memungkinkan untuk berganti suasana posisi bercinta Anda. Posisi yang paling banyak dilakukan adalah duduk di atas meja dapur sambil berhadapan dengan pasangan. Apabila Anda ingin yang lebih menyenangkan, bisa melakukan trik berbaring di atas meja makan sambil meletakan makanan cokelat, es krim, dan aneka buah seperti stroberi dan angur di atas tubuh Anda dan pasangan. Dijamin, dengan sensasi cita rasa makanan, adegan bercinta pun semakin panas membara.

Kamar Mandi
Banyak cara bercinta yang bisa dilakukan di kamar mandi, mulai dari berendam di dalam bathub hingga bercinta di bawah pancuran air. Cermin besar di kamar mandi juga akan memaksimalkan kegiatan intim Anda tersebut.

Balkon
Apabila Anda bersama pasangan tidak memiliki balkon yang tertutup, Anda bisa "bermain bersama" di bawah selimut sambil berimajinasi seolah-olah Anda memandangi bintang. Hal ini tentunya sangat menyenangkan dan romantis.

Kebun Belakang atau Taman
Sikap naif dan kekanak-kanakan untuk memacu kembali kegairahan bercinta Anda bersama pasangan bisa dilakukan di tempat ini. Dengan suasana asri berada di luar ruangan, bercinta di alam terbuka akan memanaskan kembali gairah bercinta yang sempat redup

Jangan coba-coba untuk melakukan nya jika anda masih belum mempunyai rumah sendiri, karena kalau ada yang tau malu dech jadi nya.


sumber : rimanews

3 Posisi Seks Yang Bisa Membuat Wanita Klepek-Klepek

Kepuasan pasangan adalah fokus utama ketika melakukan agenda bercinta. Apakah Anda juga ingin memuaskan pasangan? Ini dia panduannya
Kunci kepuasan seks sebenarnya bukan terletak pada durasi yang berhasil Anda lalui ataupun bagaimana kehebatan teknik yang Anda lakukan. Untuk mendapatkan kepuasan maksimal bagi diri sendiri dan pasangan, memilih posisi yang tepat menjadi kuncinya.








The Sidewinder
Gulingkan dia ke samping Anda dan biarkan dia berada dalam posisi miring ( seperti menyendok ). Setelah itu, mintalah dia untuk beraksi. Setelah mencapai posisi yang nyaman, lakukan pijatan pada klitoris sehingga membantu merangsang genital Anda untuk mencapai G-spot pada waktu bersamaan.

The Hotseat
Ketika Anda duduk di kursi, dekatkan dirinya pada tubuh Anda. Posisi ini akan memberikan Anda kontrol lebih untuk menentukan waktu dan durasi orgasme yang Anda rasakan.

Missionary on Steroids
Pada teknik ini, biarkan dirinya menguasai tubuh Anda. Jangan lupa, katakan padanya untuk mengambil waktu sejenak sambil menyentuh tulang panggulnya sehingga dia dapat memainkan klitoris Anda. Ingatkan dia untuk mendorong tubuhnya ke atas sehingga Mr P-nya berada pada sudut 45 derajat dan porosnya menyentuh klitoris Anda.

Jika anda ingin mencobanya silahkan langsung saja dipraktek kan dengan pasangan anda.

sumber : rimanews

Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Repair Mikrotik RB150

Trouble Shooting and Repair Mikrotik RB150 ( Mini Router )

Kebanyakan kerusakan yang dialami RB150 adalah pada capasitor 560uF/6,3v, 220uF/35v dan ethernet controller nya
Kerusakan yang sama juga sering dialami oleh RB450/RB450G, biasa nya karena terlalu panas sehingga capasitor nya meleduk
Untuk Gambar Penampakan nya seperti ini :












Part List


Untuk versi Pdf nya silahkan download disini

Tuesday, October 25, 2011

AirOS Firmware Revision History Version 5

AirOS Versi 5.0 to New Version 5.3.3 Firmware Revision History

Supported products :

* Bullet M
* Rocket M
* NanoStation M
* AirGrid M
* NanoBridge M
* PowerBridge M
* PicoStation M
* NanoStation Loco M
* AirRouter
* PowerAP N
* Rocket M365
* Rocket M900
* NanoStation M365
* NanoStation Loco M900


Version 5.3.3-Service Release (July 26, 2011)
---------------------------------------------

Improvements/Change requests:
- Improvement: AirMax: Client's upload speed is low (compared to Download)
- Improvement: AirMax: Performance decrease when adding additional clients and using 10MHz/5MHz channel widths
- Improvement: AirMax: VoIP traffic quality in PTP mode for 10MHz/5MHz channel widths

Fixes:
- Fix: AirMax: Low performance when PTPnoACK is ON and operating in 40MHz/20MHz channel widths
- Fix: NanoStation M5/M2 hangup issue using PoE pass through functionality (possible fix)
- Fix: Power saving issues with some mobile phones
- Fix: Tranzeo and other clients continuously disassociate from UBNT AP due to timestamp changes after stuck beacon appears

- GUI fix: WPA-PSK key is truncated on operating mode change
- GUI fix: Changed redirection code from 301 to 302 to not cache data. Solves redirection problem when using Firefox 5.0 web browser


Version 5.3.2-Service Release (May 3, 2011)
----------------------------------------------

- New: AirRouter HP support
- New: Completely remove non 5.7-5.8 GHz frequency for US and Canada country code
- New: Auto Adjust to EIRP Limit replaces Remove Obey Regulatory Rules

Improvements/Change requests:
- Improvement: WPA/WPA2-TKIP security stability improvements in noisy environments
- Improvement: CCQ calculation
- Improvement: AirMax performance

Fixes:
- Fix: Possible memory corruption fix
- Fix: Return Channel Shifting for M900 and M365 products
- Fix: Connectivity issues for some mobile devices
- Fix: Speed test and traffic shaper issue
- Fix: Invalid connection time (49,689 days) reporting issue
- Fix: Send gratuitous ARP reply on bridge MAC change (when starting AirView)
- Fix: MIC errors encountered in high interference case if aggregation is used
- Fix: PPPoE authentication doesn't work through STA bridge with some routers
- Fix: Multicast routing does not work in SOHO-Router mode

- GUI fix: Hide "Auto Adjust to EIRP Limit" checkbox for Compliance test country code
- GUI fix: Disabling "Enable Installer EIRP Control" option, when "Auto Adjust to EIRP Limit" isn't enabled, allows to apply settings without any real changes
- GUI fix: Change warning message, when turning off "Installer EIRP Control"
- GUI fix: Under IE Stations list table header text should not be wrapped
- GUI fix: Site Survey doesn't return scan results in 10 MHz channel width
- GUI fix: Enable Discovery checkbox is not intuitive under "AirControl", move under Service menu
- GUI fix: Report allowed port range when configuring System services
- GUI fix: Site survey does not always return scan results
- GUI fix: Ad hoc device mode in Site survey returns symbols
- GUI fix: Strange TX/RX values in throughput graphic under IE9

- Fix: AirControl agent: Incorrect WLAN connection count reporting
- Fix: AirControl agent: Invalid wlanUptime reporting


Version 5.3 - Final Release (January 14, 2011)
----------------------------------------------

New product support:
- New: 3G Station product support
- New: NanoBridge M365 support
- New: NanoBridge M900 support
- New: NanoBridge M3 support

New functionality:
- New: AirSelect
- New: VLAN tagging: one VLAN per device
- New: Low TX power mode for Rocket M5/Rocket M2
- New: DFS enabled by default for all 5GHz products
- New: Discovery Tool
- New: Ubiquiti Logo Tab
- New: Remove outside 5745-5825 MHz frequency range for US country (all M series devices)
- New: NanoStation Loco M900: external and internal antenna support scenario
- New: Ability to enter device location (for AirControl server)

- AirControl agent: Support for GPS location reporting
- AirControl agent: Support for latency reporting
- AirControl agent: Configuration changed indicator
- AirControl agent: Report network adapter status/speed

Improvement/Change requests:
- CCR: Add Auto Frequency functionality (AP/AP WDS mode)
- CCR: Jumbo frames support (maximum allowed MTU is 1518 bytes of data)
- CCR: Remove Device name 14 characters limit
- CCR: Sensitivity threshold settings for wireless clients
- CCR: Add possibility to configure DNS address in DHCP server configuration
- CCR: Port Forwarding should support Source IP/mask criteria
- CCR: Dynamic DNS support
- CCR: Improve Firewall rules with ACCEPT
- CCR: Ability to turn auto discovery off under Ubiquiti logo tab/AirControl
- CCR: Remove Refresh button from Main page as it already have auto refresh function
- CCR: New regulatory rules for Germany (5755-5875MHz frequencies removed)
- CCR: Lock to AP MAC functionality for Station/Station WDS
- CCR: Make all columns in Stations list sortable
- CCR: Report negotiated Ethernet port speed on Main page
- CCR: Singapore frequency range changes (remove outside 5725-5850 MHz frequency channels according Regulatory Rules)
- CCR: Turkey frequency range changes (add 5470-5725 MHz frequency channels according Regulatory Rules)

- Improvement: WPA/WPA2 EAP-TTLS improvements
- Improvement: Connection stability improvement when using WPA/WPA2 security
- Improvement: Wireless driver improvements, when communicating to mobile devices using Power Saving
- Improvement: Functionality set for Indoor products (ability to turn on/off AirMax technology features)
- Improvement: DMZ configuration to allow more control over management ports

Fixes:
- AirMax: PPPoE latency in PtMP network with more than 22 clients connected to AP
- AirMax: ICMP ping doesn't pass wireless link
- AirMax: Big delay when transmitting IGMP packets
- AirMax: TX Data rate gets stuck on 81 Mbps, when using No ACK mode for PtP and 40MHz channel width #1618
- AirMax: Voice quality issues in PtMP network

- Fix: Double Auth/Assoc using WPA/WPA2 security when connecting to the AP
- Fix: STA disassociation during WPA/WPA2 group key exchange (affects AES and TKIP security)
- Fix: No connection or persistent station disassociation when at least one station is connected with low RSSI
- Fix: Enabling Client isolation inflicts AP WDS (repeaters) to stop talk with neighborhood AP WDS
- Fix: Intel clients are de-authenticated during rekeying
- Fix: Stability improvements when more than 8 clients connected and some of them are using power save mode
- Fix: Improved power saving handling (Nokia, HTC phones)
- Fix: PS Poll problems
- Fix: MAC changing doesn't work in AP (Router/SOHO Router) mode
- Fix: Throughput slowdown for 2.4 GHz Station when to the same AP is connected at least one AP-WDS peer
- Fix: Previously configured default gateway isn't disabled when WAN interface is configured to obtain IP settings from DHCP server (SOHO Router mode)
- Fix: Ukraine is missing in Country Code list
- Fix: Enable obey regulatory rules in default configuration for PowerAP N/AirRouter
- Fix: Sometimes devices behind STA-WDS are not reachable from AP-WDS LAN side
- Fix: Auto IP aliasing doesn't set IP address if DHCP client is enabled
- Fix: In AP Router or SOHO-Router mode LAN interface can't be disabled if DHCP client is running on it
- Fix: Auto IP aliasing duplicates and is incorrect
- Fix: DHCP Fallback IP is not removed after getting IP from DHCP server
- Fix: Improved wireless client roaming between AP-WDS peers
- Fix: Channel list is required on AP/AP-WDS when enabling DFS
- Fix: Multicast traffic doesn't pass PtP link, when client is using IGMPv3 reports
- Fix: Ebtables module should support VLAN criteria
- Fix: Low Data Rates and CCQ value when link is idle
- Fix: After upgrade DHCP server serves LAN IP as DNS server when DNS proxy is disabled
- Fix: NTP client request interval should be tuned for DHCP Client use case

- Fix: Auto ACK miscalculation, when connected to 802.11a/b/g devices operating in HT5/HT10 channel width
- Fix: Auto ACK calculates incorrect value for very short distance

- Fix: PPPoE client hold off time is not correct
- Fix: PPPoE client is not restoring session after wireless link connection loss
- Fix: Send proper disconnect command to PPPoE server when restarting PPPoE session
- Fix: ARPNAT and PPPoE relay issue

- Fix: AirControl agent: Location values are not reported to AirControl Server

- Fix: DFS: AP doesn't restore operation after 30 min silence
- Fix: DFS: Remove Radar detection capability on STA mode when operating up to 200mW EIRP

- GUI fix: Max power of AirGridM2/AirGridM5 products is 20dBm not 19dBm
- GUI fix: Make VLAN network settings in Bridge mode as separate option
- GUI fix: Reset to defaults redirects to incorrect IP address in SOHO Router mode
- GUI fix: Pop-up windows are not closed on "save" action if parent tab is changed #1668
- GUI fix: Reports two LAN ports on Main page for when device has only one
- GUI fix: When DNS proxy is disabled, take DNS from WAN and fill DNS fields for DHCP server automatically
- GUI fix: DHCP client info is not updated after Renew
- GUI fix: Read-only user permission/redirect issue
- GUI fix: In SOHO Router mode throughput graphic for LAN does not include traffic that goes only on WLAN interface
- GUI fix: Change AirMax priority returns incorrect Warning message
- GUI fix: ACK distance reporting issue in Station Details and AP information
- GUI fix: "Source IP/mask" field in port forwarding should allow 18 characters
- GUI fix: FW upgrade "Close Window" button is not functional if Parent Window is closed
- GUI fix: Misbehavior with Obey Regulatory Rules
- GUI fix: Password field and "Show" checkbox wraps
- GUI fix: Add Antenna model selection for NanoBridge M5 (22 dBi antenna (NBM5-22) and 25 dBi antenna (NBM5-25))
- GUI fix: IP aliasing is not correct in SOHO Router mode
- GUI fix: Output Power slider position when min value is selected

Version 5.2.2 - Service Release (October 14, 2010)
----------------------------------------------------
- New: AirGrid HP M product support
- Fix: Wrong max power limit after reset to defaults for some products


Version 5.2.1 - Service Release (September 13, 2010)
----------------------------------------------------

- New: Rocket M365 support
- New: Rocket M900 support
- New: NanoStation M365 support
- New: NanoStation Loco M900 support

Improvements/Change requests:
- Improvement: DFS functionality enhancements
- Improvement: Improve 10/5MHz channel width stability
- Improvement: IGMP proxy
- Improvement: Multicast traffic
- CCR: Increase maximum allowed DHCP server lease time to 48h
- CCR: Allow more than 128 associations with security off
- CCR: Add GUI option to disable reset button. Prevents from accidental configuration reset to factory defaults

Fixes:
- Fix: AirMax: Packet loss just after client association to the AirMax AP
- Fix: AirMax: STA Transmission Queue stuck, need a reset

- Fix: AP wireless stops operating
- Fix: Station stays connected to AP, but no wireless traffic is available
- Fix: Multicast enhancement does not handle VLAN tagged traffic
- Fix: AutoACK calculation issue specific for NanoBridge M5/AirGrid M5/NanoStation Loco M5 devices
- Fix: AutoACK on AP calculates incorrect values to 802.11 b-only stations
- Fix: Ipod iTouch freezes Internet connection for laptops, which have Intel wireless radios
- Fix: AP is using the lowest TX rate (6Mbps), when communicating with 802.11 a/b/g Stations and using WEP/WPA-TKIP/WPA2-TKIP security
- Fix: AP scans only upper or lower channels in 40 MHz channel width
- Fix: AP(WDS) in 40 MHz channel width can connect AP(WDS) in 20 MHz channel width
- Fix: MAC Address change in Station-Router mode results WPA failure
- Fix: Devices behind STA-WDS in PtMP network, sometimes becomes unreachable
- Fix: PowerAP N WLAN LED is not shining when RSSI level is less than 30
- Fix: MAX EIRP 36dBm for 2.4GHz band in Australia
- Fix: SNMP: Report correct IF-MIB interface speed OID values
- Fix: CCQ calculation with auto rates are used

- Fix: AirView: Application does not return scan results on NanoBridge M2/NanoStation Loco M2

- AirControl Agent: Restore console reporting after wireless association is restored
- AirControl Agent: Report association time
- AirControl Agent: Odd behavior with discovery response
- AirControl Agent: Ping is not restoring connection when AirControl server is unreachable on startup

- GUI fix: Status and Site survey pages fails to render if SSID has escape character(s)
- GUI fix: Speed Test fails if using special symbols in password
- GUI fix: Speed tests doesn't work if HTTPS port has been changed
- GUI fix: When disabling scan list, previously selected channels are unchecked
- GUI fix: new Chrome-BETA conflicts with Web UI validation framework
- GUI fix: Fixed rates uses SGI(400 ns) rate table
- GUI fix: Read only user can access device configuration file
- GUI fix: Sometimes Station list is empty
- GUI fix: Show static routes in Main page, when operating in Bridge mode
- GUI fix: Special Char escaping required for SNMP settings
- GUI fix: Destination IP field validation is missing

Known issues:
- Sometimes Station disassociates during WPA/WPA2 group key exchange


Version 5.2 - Final Release (May 14, 2010)
------------------------------------------

- New: Speed test tool
- New: AirView tool (Spectrum Analyzer mode)
- New: Routing scenario: Network mode "Soho Router"
- New: NanoStation M5/M2 Second Ethernet port functionality -- now it is possible to bridge with wireless port
- New: Antenna gain and cable loss fields for compliance
- New: AirMax ON in default configuration
- New: Intelligent GUI improvement
- New: Console agent: Restore active heartbeat connections after firmware upgrade
- New: Report 802.11 information messages into syslog
- New: Improve ACL rules management: increase max MAC ACL entry count to 32
- New: Remove DFS 5250-5350 frequency for US country code (all M series products) , but keep the link alive if DFS frequency was used

Improvements/Change requests:

- CCR: RADIUS client support in AP mode
- CCR: PEAP/MSCHAPv2 support
- CCR: Add static routes via WEB UI
- CCR: Show Station and AP IP address
- CCR: Hide WPA password with "*"
- CCR: Ability to de-associate station from Station list via WEB UI
- CCR: Add support for SSH authorized keys in configuration file
- CCR: Change apply configuration logic
- CCR: Missing ppp0 interface information on Main page, when PPPoE session is initialized
- CCR: Add System Startup Time/Date field (critical for 802.1x supplicant)
- CCR: Allow ping when device is in TFTP recovery mode
- CCR: Include PPTP/GRE NAT modules
- CCR: Add MAC clone/change option for WAN interface when operating in SOHO router mode
- CCR: Report AirMax priority and AMQ/AMC in Station detail
- CCR: Speed test: Show total throughput (RX + TX)
- CCR: Make IP address in stations list as hyperlink
- CCR: GUI: Show/hide Traffic shaping configuration
- CCR: GUI: Add option to enable/disable NAT modules on router: SIP, PPTP, FTP, RTSP
- Improvement: Speed test: resolves TX/RX difference
- Improvement: In memory allocation

Fixes:

- Fix: TX Power improvement for NanoBridge M5, AirGrid M5, NanoStation Loco M5, Bullet M2, Rocket M2, NanoStation M2, NanoBridge M2
- Fix: Chain signal mismatch on reported signal strength/ Power control for M5 2x2 chain devices
- Fix: Sometimes Auto ACK values gets too high
- Fix: Max power level for Australia
- Fix: Speed test + AirMax PtP No Ack combination crashes AP
- Fix: Traffic Shaping is not functional except Soho Router mode
- Fix: Traffic Shaping Burst is for functional
- Fix: WPA security : Sometimes station is disassociated from AP
- Fix: Broadcast traffic is duplicated on AP-WDS
- Fix: NAT protocols state changes when changing security
- Fix: SNMP wrong OID type: Disallow port range as destination (to private subnet)
- Fix: SNMP reports incorrect wireless stats
- Fix: Station can not connect to AP (MAC Locked) if it was connected to another AP with the same SSID
- Fix: Signal reporting
- Fix: Improve noise level calculation
- Fix: Noise floor is too aggressive
- Fix: Auto ACK on AP
- Fix: No more trimmed channels on Compliance country code

- Fix: Airmax: PTMP ping loss issue after beta6
- Fix: AirMax: PTPNack AMQ/AMC fluctuation
- Fix: AirMax: PTP and PTMP enhancements (latency)\

- Fix: Airview: Sometimes switching back to normal operating mode is endless

- GUI fix: Problems with WPA PSK paraphrase: old value is displayed, new value is not saved
- GUI fix: Sometime Device name in not reported in Stations list
- GUI fix: Do not show clients as connected when authentication key is not valid
- GUI fix: Test mode. Timing is no so precise as stated in the warning message
- GUI fix: Need correctly display ACK/Distance when AirMax and PtPNoACK mode is enabled
- GUI fix: Name -> Device Name
- GUI fix: Grammar error in warning message
- GUI fix: MCS1 is always reported in AP/Station statistics
- GUI Fix: IE8 and WEB UI errors

- Fix: Frequency list issue fix for counties:
Uzbekistan
Brazil
Honduras
Peru
Philippines
Russia
South Africa
Sri Lanka
Thailand

Known issue:
- Limitation from HW: MCS13 does not work with WEP/WPA/WPA2/WPA-TKIP/WPA2-TKIP security -- MCS 13 removed from WEB UI


Version 5.1.2 - Service Release (February 9, 2010)
--------------------------------------------------
- MAJOR: Fixed ARP broadcast issues in WDS mode
- MAJOR: Added Mikrotik Station WDS support
- MAJOR: Fix to allow VLAN pass through on secondary Ethernet port (NanoStation M)
- AirMax: Fixed AMC calculation when using fixed rate


Version 5.1 - Final Release (January 07, 2010)
----------------------------------------------

- Throughput improvement for AirMax in PtP environment
- Throughput Improvement for AirMax in 2.4 GHz 40 MHz channel width
- Fixed lower throughput issue when using AirMax No ACK mode for PTP in 40 MHz channel width
- Fixed ping latency issue when AirMax is enabled
- Improvements in wireless stability

- New: Show station ACK value in Station list under Monitor section
- New: Added ip_conntrack_sip support

- Fixed UI issue with signal reporting
- Fixed missing channels in Channel scan list (20/40 Mhz auto)
- GUI: Show only 50% as a max AMC value for 1x1 chain devices
- Fixed DNS proxy and DHCP server configuration issue
- Fixed issue in site survey: cannot select AP when scanning in 5/10 MHz channel width mode
- Fixed issue in admin password: cannot login with admin password when symbols ($, \ or ') are used


Version 5.1-RC3 (December 21, 2009)
-----------------------------------
- New: Auto rates with MAX value setting
- New: AirMax No ACK feature for Point-to-Point links
- MAJOR: Fixed WPA/WPA2 clients connection stability
- MAJOR: Wireless link stability fix when AirMax is OFF
- MAJOR: Memory allocation issue on AP with more than 60 clients
- MAJOR: Performance improvements in 2.4 GHz
- Auto ACK improvements
- Administrator password limit is 8 symbols
- Allow to increase Logout session timeout
- Allow to disable password authentication for SSH
- 5 MHz channel width is back in 2.4GHz mode
- GUI: AirMax made as separate section under Advanced setting menu

- Fixed GUI issue in AP Mode, Connections shows 0 when more then 45 clients are actually connected
- Fixed MAC expiration issue in Bridge-WDS
- Fixed passing VLAN tagged packets with V5.1-Beta
- Fixed CCQ value when no data
- Show B/G/N mixed instead of Ng, A/N mixed instead of Na
- Fixed Signal Level reporting in UI (RSSI chain mismatch)
- Fixed Data rates selection and reporting
- Fixed download backup configuration file or Support info file issue if using IE browser


Version 5.1-beta (November 20, 2009)
------------------------------------
- New: 802.11 a/b/g products support
- New: WEP and WPA/WPA2 TKIP security support
- New: Advanced Ethernet settings
- New: Web server change
- New: AirMax 4 level MAC address based priority
- New: AirMax automatic Voice packet recognition and TXQ assignment
- New: AirMax No Ack (PtP Mode only). Can be enabled only in the config file for the AP by setting radio.1.pollingnoack=1
- New: auto ACK implementation
- Added Arpnat support for more than one IP address per single bridged MAC address
- Updated PPPoE version
- Ethernet driver update
- Added hardware watchdog timer

- Fixed stability issue on link when Airmax is disabled
- Fixed PPPoE Stability in 40 MHz channel width (PPPoE session disconnects due to the no response to 5 echo-requests)
- Fixed WPA/WPA2 client connection issue to AP
- Removed US country code DFS frequencies: 5500-5700 GHz
- Separated L2 isolation and multicast traffic
- Fixed issues in PPPoE daemon when compression enabled
- Fixed switch off for Extra reporting (MT discovery protocol)
- Fixed incorrect CDP packet check sum
- No more FTP speed limits per session when AirMax enabled
- Fixed Compliance test country frequency range for 20/40 MHz channel width
- Fixed SNMP OID numbers persistence (SNMP daemon enumerates all interfaces on startup and assigns sequential numbers now)


- Fixed Web UI lock
- Fixed read-only user account
- Improved signal strength value in 40 MHz channel width
- Fixed signal strength per chain handling when station disconnects from AP
- Fixed data rates reporting for 10Mhz channel width for 802.11 a/b/g clients
- Improved Noise Floor reporting
- Improvement in data rate reporting when traffic is inactive
- Added Device Name in Station and AP statistics table
- Fixed ARP table entry reporting if it contains unresolved MAC address


Version 5.0.2 - SERVICE release (October 23, 2009)
------------------------------------------------
- Fixed Chain 1 association problem in 802.11a mode
- Fixed Compliance test channels in 5 MHz step instead of 20 MHz
- Added VLAN support in Ethernet driver


Version 5.0.2-RC6 (October 17,2009)
-------------------------------------
- Final Ethernet lockup fix

Version 5.0.5-RC5 (September 26, 2009)
-------------------------------------
- Uboot fix

Version 5.0.2-RC4 (September 25, 2009)
--------------------------------------
- Increased Reset to Defaults/Rescue mode timing (triggered from POE and Reset button)
- Added ability to disable reset to default function (from PoE and Reset button) in config

Version 5.0.2-RC3 (September 23, 2009)
--------------------------------------
- Ethernet lockup fix
- Fixed SNMP agent to report correct values


Version 5.0.2-RC2 (September 18, 2009)
--------------------------------------
- Fixed web UI slow responses (aka web server loop) on Windows7/IE8 version: 8.0.7057.0
- Fixed PPPoE reconnection issue
- Fixed PPPoE client DNS server issue
- Fixed LAN interface disabling
- Use device name as Web UI Authentication Realm name (allows to use Google Chrome)
- Show FW version on Main page
- PPPoE client can't authenticate if in username symbol # is used
- Fixed connection on low signals: noise immunity is switched off by default. Added ability to change noise immunity on/off in config (not available on UI)
- Fixed AirMax lockup
- DHCP server doesn't work if DNS proxy is disabled


Version 5.0.2-RC1 (August 31, 2009)
------------------------------------
- Added Compliance test country code
- Added information text in survey window
- Fixed Memory leak when scanning
- Fixed selected channels scanning
- Fixed WPA/WPA2 association to AP with hidden ESSID on passive scan channels
- Fixed Product Logo displaying if no logo image for device
- Fixed firmware version reporting
- Fixed Rate control algorithm is too aggressive in noisy conditions
- Fixed AirMax AP lock after some time
- Fixed combined signal report in align antenna tool for 2 chains devices
- Fixed hangup issue in router mode with firewall enabled (aka ethernet/iptables fix)
- Fixed scan results for more than 14 stations issue
- Fixed AMC values for 1x1 device should not show more than 50%
- Fixed connected stations reporting for more than 22 stations issue

Version 5.0 (June 16, 2009 RELEASE)
-----------------------------------
- New: UI design
- New: AirMax functionality
- New: 5/10/20/40 MHz channel width support
- Improvement: CCQ formula

Monday, October 24, 2011

Mikrotik X86 Interfaces Always Appear Running

Cara menghilangkan R pada Interface Mikrotik x86 

Semua tipe mikrotik routerOS yang terinstall pada PC atau mikrotik type x86 jika kita tambahkan sebuah ethernet card Misal RB44GV maka jika kita buka pada menu interface semua interface ethernet akan bertanda R ( Running ) jadi kita agak binun sebenar nya interface ethernet mana yang benar-benar sedang running, hal ini bisa kita ketahui jika interface tersebut sedang di gunakan ( ada traffic tx/rx pada interface tersebut ). terkadang kita harus menandai terlebih dahulu interface tersebut atau kita kasih nama agar mudah.


Sebenar nya cukup mudah untuk mematikan feature tersebut langsung saja ini cara ny : buka menu new terminal pada winbox anda lalu ketikan perintah berikut
/interface ethernet set 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 disable-running-check=no
sesuaikan dengan jumlah interface yang terpasang disini saya memakai contoh MikroBits Celoica 8101 Core 2 Quad dengan 10 interface ethernet yang terpasang.
Hasil nya seperti gambar di bawah ini :

Friday, October 21, 2011

New Product Mikrotik Announcements RB2011

Product Mikrotik Terbaru RB2011L-IN dengan 5x5Gigabit dan 5x100MBit, SFP/USB/WiFi models sudah diperkenalkan di Las Vegas
Akhirnya Sekarang sudah Release

Normis has just finished announcing the new products, some new and exciting info about the RB2011L-IN as well as more details on known models.

RB 2011L-IN :



- Low cost series
- Rackmount or Desktop
- 5xGigabit, 5x100Mbit
- SFP/USB/WiFi models
- Available December
Model Table



New product descriptor lettering:
RM – 1U Rackmount models
IN – Indoor/Desktop models



For example RB2011-US-2HnD-IN (Red labeled box up the top) or this RB2011L-RM
Currently 7 variants planned to release gradually from December to February

Thursday, October 20, 2011

Trouble Shooting and Repair RB112

Mikrotik sudah mengeluarkan panduan Trouble Shooting and Repair untuk Router Board versi jadul,
contoh nya RB112 bagaimana cara mengatasi kerusakan dan cara memperbaiki nya ?
Langsung saja








Untuk versi Pdf nya bisa Download di sini


Block MSN Advertisements

Sedikit rule untuk block MSN Advertisements
Silahkan Dicoba sendiri, langsung saja ini rule nya

Dengan Mikrotik
/ ip firewall filter
add chain=forward src-address=0.0.0.0/0 protocol=tcp content=MsgrConfig action=drop disabled=no
add chain=forward src-address=0.0.0.0/0 protocol=tcp content=RadUrl action=drop disabled=no

Jangan Kekang Pasangan Pria Anda

Sejumlah pria masih asyik bergaul dengan teman-temannya, meski telah terikat pernikahan. Ini positif. Bukan hanya demi kesehatan mental dan fisik, menghabiskan waktu dengan lingkungan sosialnya justru membuat pria mampu membangun 'waktu yang baik' untuk pasangannya.

Seperti dilansir dari YouBeauty, Departeman Sosiologi Universitas Cornell dan Universitas Chicago mencoba untuk menganalisis data survei National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project tahun 2005 yang melibatkan 3.005 pria usia 57-85 tahun di Amerika.
Mereka menyimpulkan bahwa sangat penting bagi pria untuk memiliki waktu bermain bersama teman-temannya. Manfaatnya tidak semata untuk kesenangan pribadi. Menurut penelitian, terdapat hubungan antara disfungsi ereksi dan kehidupan sosial mereka.



Seperempat pria mengalami 'partner betweeness' atau fenomena sosial di mana pasangan wanita mendominasi kehidupan sosial pria. Misalnya, ketika berpergian bersama teman-temannya, suami
harus selalu mengikut-sertakan istri. Pria tidak memiliki waktunya sendiri bersama teman-temannya sehingga tanpa sadar menganggap partner hidupnya sebagai teman. Hal ini dibuktikan dapat menjadi racun dari sisi maskulin karena adanya pembatasan privasi, otonomi, dan kontrol.
Data juga menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 92 persen di antara mereka mengalami disfungsi ereksi. Mereka pun tampak dua kali lebih mungkin mengalami disfungsi ereksi jika mereka hanya menghabiskan kehidupan sosial mereka bersama pasangan.
Solusinya tampak sederhana. Pasangan suami istri harus saling membangun kepercayaan. "Yang terpenting adalah dia tidak selalu terkekang oleh ikatan pernikahan," ujar salah satu penulis Professor Edward Laumann dari Universitas Chicago kepada Daily Mail.
Ahli hubungan YouBeauty Dave Sbarra, Ph.D menunjukkan bahwa wanita tidak terjebak dalam ketergantungan seperti pria karena mereka cenderung lebih baik dalam memertahankan jaringan pertemanan terpisah dengan pasangan mereka. "Mendorong pria memiliki hubungan yang baik dengan teman-temannya adalah hal yang baik," ujarnya.
Jadi, biarkan suami Anda hang out bersama teman-temannya, sembari Anda memanjakan diri di salon. Setidaknya, Anda dan suami memiliki cerita baru yang dapat mewarnai kehidupan pernikahan Anda.

Sumber : rimanews

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Candi Kalasan

Candi Kalasan terletak di Desa Kalibening, Tirtamani, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, tepatnya di depan SMP N 1 Kalasan. Dalam Prasasti Kalasan dikatakan bahwa candi ini disebut juga Candi Kalibening, sesuai dengan nama desa tempat candi tersebut berada. Tidak jauh dari Candi Kalasan terdapat sebuah candi yang bernama Candi Sari. Kedua candi tersebut memiliki kemiripan dalam keindahan bangunan serta kehalusan pahatannya. Ciri khas lain yang hanya ditemui pada kedua candi itu ialah digunakannya vajralepa (bajralepa) untuk melapisi ornamen-ornamen dan relief pada dinding luarnya.


Umumnya sebuah candi dibangun oleh raja atau penguasa kerajaan pada masanya untuk berbagai kepentingan, misalnya untuk tempat ibadah, tempat tinggal bagi biarawan, pusat kerajaan atau tempat dilangsungkannya kegiatan belajar-mengajar agama. Keterangan mengenai Candi Kalasan dimuat dalam Prasasti Kalasan yang ditulis pada tahun Saka 700 (778 M). Prasasti tersebut ditulis dalam bahasa Sanskerta menggunakan huruf pranagari. Dalam Prasasti Kalasan diterangkan bahwa para penasehat keagamaan Wangsa Syailendra telah menyarankan agar Maharaja Tejapurnama Panangkarana mendirikan bangunan suci untuk memuja Dewi Tara dan sebuah biara untuk para pendeta Buddha. Menurut prasasti Raja Balitung (907 M), yang dimaksud dengan Tejapurnama Panangkarana adalah Rakai Panangkaran, putra Raja Sanjaya dari Kerajaan Mataram Hindu.
Rakai Panangkaran kemudian menjadi raja Kerajaan Mataram Hindu yang kedua. Selama kurun waktu 750-850 M kawasan utara Jawa Tengah dikuasai oleh raja-raja dari Wangsa Sanjaya yang beragama Hindu dan memuja Syiwa. Hal itu terlihat dari karakter candi-candi yang dibangun di daerah tersebut. Selama kurun waktu yang sama Wangsa Syailendra yang beragama Buddha aliran Mahayana yang sudah condong ke aliran Tantryana berkuasa di bagian selatan Jawa Tengah. Pembagian kekuasaan tersebut berpengaruh kepada karakter candi-candi yang dibangun di wilayah masing-masing pada masa itu. Kedua Wangsa tersebut akhirnya dipersatukan melalui pernikahan Rakai Pikatan Pikatan (838 - 851 M) dengan Pramodawardhani, Putra Maharaja Samarattungga dari Wangsa Syailendra.

Untuk membangun bangunan suci bagi Dewi Tara, Rakai Panangkaran menganugerahkan Desa Kalasan dan untuk membangun biara yang diminta para pendeta Buddha. Diperkirakan bahwa candi yang dibangun untuk memuja Dewi Tara adalah Candi Kalasan, karena di dalam candi ini semula terdapat patung Dewi Tara, walaupun patung itu sudah tidak berada di tempatnya. Sementara itu, yang dimaksud dengan biara tempat para pendeta Buddha, menurut dugaan, adalah Candi Sari yang memang letaknya tidak jauh dari Candi Kalasan. Berdasarkan tahun penulisan Prasasti Kalasan itulah diperkirakan bahwa tahun 778 Masehi merupakan tahun didirikannya Candi Kalasan.
Menurut pendapat beberapa ahli purbakala, Candi kalasan ini telah mengalami tiga kali pemugaran. Sebagai bukti, terlihat adanya 4 sudut kaki candi dengan bagian yang menonjol. Selain itu yang terdapat torehan yang dibuat untuk keperluan pemugaran pada tahun 1927 sampai dengan 1929 oleh Van Romondt, seorang arkeolog Belanda. Sampai saat ini Candi Kalasan masih digunakan sebagai tempat pemujaan bagi penganut ajaran Buddha, terutama aliran Buddha Tantrayana dan pemuja Dewi Tara.
Bangunan candi diperkirakan berada pada ketinggian sekitar duapuluh meter diatas permukaan tanah, sehingga tinggi keseluruhan bangunan candi mencapai 34 m. Candi Kalasan berdiri diatas alas berbentuk bujur sangkar dengan ukuran 45x45 m yang membentuk selasar di sekeliling candi. Di setiap sisi terdapat tangga naik ke emperan candi yang dihiasi sepasang kepala naga pada kakinya. Di hadapan anak tangga terbawah terdapat hamparan lantai dari susunan batu. Di depannya kaki tangga dipasang lempengan batu yang tipis dan halus dengan bentuk berlekuk-lekuk.
Bangunan candi secara keseluruhan berbentuk empat persegi panjang berukuran 34x 45 m, terdiri atas ruang utama yang berbentuk bujur sangkar dan bilik-bilik yang menjorok keluar di tengah keempat sisinya. Dinding di sekeliling kaki candi dihiasi dengan pahatan bermotif kumuda, yaitu daun kalpataru yang keluar dari sebuah jambangan bulat.

Candi Kalasan memiliki 4 buah pintu yang terletak di keempat sisi, namun hanya pintu di sisi timur dan barat yang mempunyai tangga untuk mencapai pintu dan hanya pintu di sisi timur yang merupakan pintu masuk ke ruang utama di tengah candi. Dilihat dari letak pintu utamanya tersebut dapat dikatakan bahwa Candi Kalasan menghadap ke timur. Di sepanjang dinding candi terdapat cekungan-cekungan yang berisis berbagai arca, walaupun tidak semua arca masih berada di tempatnya. Diatas semua pintu dan cekungan selalu dihiasi dengan pahatan bermotif Kala. Tepat di atas ambang pintu, di bawah pahatan Kalamakara, terdapat hiasan kecil berupa wanita bersila memegang benda di kedua belah tangannya. Relung-relung di sisi kiri dan kanan atas pintu candi dihiasi dengan sosok dewa dalam posisi berdiri memegang bunga teratai.
Bagian atas tubuh candi berbentuk kubus yang melambangkan puncak Meru, dikelilingi oleh 52 stupa setinggi, rata-rata, 4,60 m.Sepanjang batas antara atap dan tubuh candi dihiasi dengan deretan makhluk kerdil yang disebut Gana.
Atap candi ini berbentuk segi delapan dan bertingkat dua. Tingkat pertama dihiasi dengan relung-relung berisi arca Budha Manusi Budha, sedangkan tingkat ke dua dihiasi dengan relung-relung berisi arca Dhayani Budha. Puncak candi sesungguhnya berbentuk stupa, tetapi sampai saat ini belum berhasil direkonstruksi kembali karena banyak batu asli yang tidak di temukan. Bila dilihat dari dalam, puncak atap terlihat seperti rongga dari susunan lingkaran dari batu yang semakin ke atas semakin menyempit.

Ruang utama candi berbentuk bujur sangkar dan mempunyai pintu masuk di sisi timur. Di dalam ruangan tersebut terdapat susunan batu bertingkat yang dahulu merupakan tempat meletakkan patung Dewi Tara. Diperkirakan bahwa patung tersebut terbuat dari perunggu setinggi sekitar enam meter. Menempel pada dinding barat, di belakang susunan batu tersebut terdapat semacam altar pemujaan.

Sumber : di sini

Mikrotik RouterOS ChangeLog

Mikrotik RouterOS ChangeLog versi 4.0Beta1 sampai versi terbaru 5.7
Langsung saja

What's new in 5.7 (2011-Sep-14 10:54):

*) ovpn client - fixed crash when user name or password together
were longer than 11 symbols;
*) sstp client - added an option to skip
server address verification from certificate;
*) fixed problem - router crashed sometimes when using USB modem;
*) userman - show overall totals, show user totals if user has more
than one entry;
*) lcd - retrieving '/system lcd page' configuration did not work with
hundreds of interfaces;
*) webfig - added ability to reorder fields in skins;
*) webfig - added ability to add/remove new tabs & separators in skins;
*) webfig - added ability to add any field to special status page;
*) webfig - fixed problem when user sometimes got logged out with message
"internal server error";
*) webfig - logout didn't log user out from router;
*) webfig - added System/Password for changing user's own password;
*) system reset-configuration - if keep-users is specified ssh user keys are
preserved as well;
*) ipsec - new exchange mode (main-l2tp) for l2tp tunnel users to allow
FQDN as a peer ID with preshared key authorization in main mode;
*) ssh - fix possible server crash when connection is interrupted;
*) improved ipv4 forwarding performance on all boards with simple configuration
by up to 30%;
*) add passthrough setting to change-dscp, change-ttl, change-mss,
strip-ipv4-options, change-hop-limit mangle targets;
*) ipsec - fixed problem of RB1200 rebooting when large amount of UDP traffic is
sent through IPsec;
*) sniffer - added more useful packet filtering options, also available as quick
mode command parameters;

What's new in 5.6 (2011-Aug-02 14:45):

*) ipsec - fix a problem which could silently remove a manual policy
from the kernel if the peer configuration has 'generate-policy' set to 'yes'
and if the policy matches with the traffic selector of a SA being removed
on the responder side, also fix a problem that some generated policies
may stay in kernel after relevant SA was removed;
*) profiler - correctly show idle task on RB1200;
*) webfig - fix dual nstreme interface setting lists;
*) webfig - fix Wireless Access/Connect List editing;
*) webfig - fix bitrate presentation in simple queues (show 1.5M as 1500k);
*) fixed micro-sd access on RB400 not to stop everything else;
*) sstp - when server certificate verification is enabled for sstp client,
it will additionally compare IP addresses found in certificate's
subjectAltName and subject CN to the real address, DNS names are ignored;
*) tftp - optional block counter roll-over support;
*) hotspot - fixed possible crash in case of multiple Radius CoA requests;
*) userman - speedup user deletion with big log size,
note that first userman startup after this update
may take few minutes if the log size is in hundreds of MB;
*) mpls - added support for enabling/disabling control word usage for
BGP based VPLS tunnels (both - Cisco and RFC 4761 based);
*) mpls - added support for auto-discovery of VPLS NLRI encoding method
for Cisco BGP based VPLS tunnels;
*) winbox - sometimes after disconnecting, winbox could not connect back;
*) gre,ipip tunnels - new dscp parameter (0..63 or inherit);
*) ping - new dscp parameter;

What's new in 5.6:

*) bgp - allow parallel operation of RFC4761 "l2vpn" and
draft-ietf-l2vpn-signaling "l2vpn-cisco" BGP VPLS variants inside
single peering session.
*) console - ":resolve" command now returns IPv6 address for domain names
that have only IPv6 address records;
*) snmp - provide ups alarms for bad or low battery or for ups overload;
*) route - fixed SNMP getnext queries, were failing to find next
prefix in the OID order;

What's new in 5.5 (2011-Jun-20 14:43):

*) console - resolved problem that appeared in version 5.4. it caused
'sup-output' command to crash console on systems with many ethernet
interfaces or very long interface names.
*) serial console - do not automatically send login prompt to attached
usb modem if no other serial port exists;
*) winbox - fixed scrolling in terminal window;
*) webfig - encrypt whole session even in non https mode;
*) do not show contents of skin files to users without
'sensitive' permission;

What's new in 5.4 (2011-May-27 13:18):

*) webfig - do not try to open many windows
if first open was blocked by browser;
*) RB4xx ether1 port flapping fixed;

What's new in 5.3 (2011-Apr-29 15:05):

*) snmp - fix table get next with partial row keys;
*) snmp - respond from correct source address when multiple exist;
*) snmp - fix possible interface disappearing when walking ipNetToMediaTable;
*) snmp - fix possible memory leak;
*) ipsec - flush SAs and inform peer when rebooting or shutting down;
*) openvpn - fixed crash;
*) implemented terminal in WebFig;
*) implemented Skin mode in WebFig;
*) added support for more Broadcom Tigon3 based ethernet cards;
*) winbox - fixed byte to KiB, MiB and GiB conversion
(digit after decimal point could be a bit off);
*) console - align numbers right in tabular print output;
*) fixed RB450G, RB750G switch chip slow ethernet problem;
*) fix vlan disable not taking effect;
*) userman - fix Authorize.Net payment bypass;
*) userman - added profile option to overwrite shared users option
in user settings when profile is activated;
*) userman - fix db backup if it's size exceeds 2G;
*) wireless - merged ht-extension-channels in to channel-width;

What's new in 5.2 (2011-Apr-21 09:36):

*) fixed webfig;
*) console - fixed problem with supout file generation and export that
appeared in version 5.1, it was causing console to enter busy loop
on some boards;
*) ssh client - added source address and remote command options;
*) user manager - added /tool usermanager profile;

What's new in 5.1 (2011-Apr-08 12:55):

*) ipsec - fix SA lifetime display when timezone offset does not equal 0;
*) ipsec - now default DPD interval is 2 min for new configurations;
*) webfig - make bandwidth-test work;
*) fixed problem - wireless package got disabled after upgrading from v4;
*) sstp - fix problems on multicore systems;

What's new in 5.0 (2011-Mar-31 11:33):

*) route - fixed cause of crashes when handling multipath routes;
*) route - fixed limit on maximum active IPv6 route count,
was causing issues with more than 2000 active routes;
*) ipsec - added command kill-connections under remote-peers;
*) ipsec - fix responder side phase2 negotiation problem
which prevented more than one Windows7 host to initiate SA;
*) fixed vrrp - interface was invalid after undoing remove;
*) winbox - added more detailed /interface ethernet stats;
*) winbox - added ability to send e-mail;
*) winbox - added missing 'set-metric' parameter
in 'Routing/Prefix List';
*) wireless - 802.11 dynamic distance fix;
*) fixed problem - packages could not be uninstalled if disk was full;
*) fixed problem - some of the RouterBOARDS did not reboot properly sometimes;
*) fixed problem - VLANs on bridge interface did not work;
*) ssh - client supports public key authentication;

What's new in 5.0rc11 (2011-Mar-04 14:29):

*) led trigger - changed blinking for modem signal and interface monitoring;
*) ppp - added ability to specify data-channel for ppp server interfaces;
*) ipsec - added more Diffie-Hellman groups;
*) console - fixed a memory leak;
*) console - don't recreate default '/system console' entry for the serial
port if it is removed;
*) netinstall - fixed CD-ROM & usb install;
*) wireless nv2 - fixed RB532 freeze;
*) wireless - fixed station-bridge mode;
*) wireless - added station-bridge support for 802.11 and nstreme;
*) gps - show higher precision coordinates;
*) snmp - added OIDs for kvm and metarouter;
*) usermanager - works again and to make user profile active after signup,
please recreate relevant user profiles;

What's new in 5.0rc10 (2011-Feb-17 14:06):

*) routing - fixed ipv6 connected routes,
IPv6 connected routes disappeared after interface restart;
*) routing - fixed high CPU usage when adding BGP ipv6 routes;
*) winbox - fixed opening terminal window to KVM instance;
*) winbox - fixed connect button in wireless scan;
*) winbox - fixed make-binding in hotspot hosts;
*) ipsec - fix possible crash when ipv6 is enabled;
*) snmp - add usb power reset (see updated MIB);

What's new in 5.0rc9 (2011-Feb-09 13:57):

*) wireless - fixed disconnect problem on long distance
802.11 40MHz links;
*) wireless nv2 - fixed station mode that broke when station-bridge
was introduced
*) wireless - more improvements for 11n compatibility;
*) routing - fixed problem with best route selection, sometimes inferior route
could get selected as the active, problem was introduced in 5.0rc8;
*) kvm - fix guest starting;

What's new in 5.0rc8 (2011-Feb-01 14:03):

*) added led trigger - change leds on different events;
*) snmp - restored access to routing tables;
*) snmp - fixed memory leak for OID 1.3.6.1.2.1.25.2;
*) ipsec - added ipv6 support;
*) removed broadcast setting from ip address;
*) radv - fixed problem when wrong link local address was used
to send advertisements on bridge interface;
*) ppp - make IPv6 work again (introduced in v5.0rc7);
*) ppp - fixed problem when user re-authenticated and traffic accounting
included data from previous session;
*) fixed traffic-flow on x86-smp (could stop sending flows);
*) improved usb modem mode switching;
*) kvm - fixed problem when sometimes virtualization detection fails;
*) routing - route with recursive gateway sometimes was not selected as
active, if another inferior route with directly reachable gateway
was present;
*) bgp - removed "interface" property from bgp peer configuration, now
ipv6 link local remote address must be specified using the
"address%interface" notation;
*) added extended ethernet statistics (/interface ethernet print stats) for RB800,RB1000,RB1100 and RB7xx with AR7241 or newer cpu;
*) wireless - improved 11n compatibility;
*) wireless nv2 - added support for station-bridge mode;
*) wireless nv2 - added area support;
*) wireless - added ability to set registration-table comment using RADIUS
attribute;
*) implemented usb power-reset command on RB SXT 5HnD;

What's new in 5.0rc7 (2010-Dec-29 10:39):

*) fixed hotspot;
*) tftp - fixed problem when nobody could
connect if no ip-address were provided;
*) winbox - fixed mac ping from neighbor list;
*) fixed simple queues on little endian cpus;
*) fixed simple queues without provided dst-address;
*) fixed problem - could not update license for
old style 7 digit software-id's;
*) fixed winbox - IPv6 route could not be added;
*) ssh - allow bigger packets (fixes some disconnecting problems);
*) added support for RDC R6040 Ethernet controller;

What's new in 5.0rc6 (2010-Dec-23 13:33):

*) ntp server now requires a broadcast address for broadcast mode to work
it should be specified under broadcast-addresses (X.X.X.255),
255.255.255.255 is not going to work;
*) ssh - fixed showing forwarding settings,
check your setting after upgrade!
*) allow to specify multiple networks (including IPv6)
in user's allowed-from list;
*) added support for Safe Mode to WinBox;
*) allow to specify non acceptable groups for RADIUS console logins;
*) handle correctly IPv6 address on bridged or switched interfaces;
*) added IPv6 connection list;
*) added IPV6 support to graphing;
*) added IPv6 support to SNTP client;
*) added IPv6 support to NTP client & server;
*) added IPv6 support to RADIUS client;
*) added IPv6 support to snmp;
*) added IPv6 support to tftp server, also changed logging levels;
*) added IPv6 support to ssh client;
*) added IPv6 support to watchdog;
*) added IPv6 support for /tool e-mail;
*) added IPv6 support to log remote target;
*) added IPv6 support to API;
*) added IPv6 support to winbox;
*) added IPv6 support to ftpd;
*) added IPv6 support to netwatch;
*) added IPv6 support for /queue simple;
*) added IPv6 support for /tool bandwidth-test;
*) added IPv6 support for /tool torch;
*) added IPv6 support for /interface vrrp (version 3);
*) added IP/IPv6 over ipv6 tunnel interface (/interface ipipv6);
*) added Ethernet over IPv6 tunnel interface (/interface eoipv6);
*) snmp - added ipv6AddrTable from IPV6-MIB;
*) wireless nv2 - fixed station-wds mode multicast problem;
*) wireless nv2 - fixed occasional encrypted link stalls;

What's new in 5.0rc5 (2010-Dec-01 07:47):

*) logging - added email-starttls option for email target;
*) pcq - added burst settings, like in "/queue tree" and "/queue simple";
*) pcq - can specify address masks for pcq;
*) pcq - added ipv6 support;
*) wireless - fixed WPA;
*) radius - fixed encryption key decoding for wireless EAP & PPPs;
*) winbox - make keyboard work right away after main window is activated;
*) snmp - fix BER encoding for negative INTEGER values;

What's new in 5.0rc4 (2010-Nov-22 16:58):

*) radius - fixed Disconnect and CoA response signature generation;
*) winbox - make double click work in text fields again;
*) winbox - allow to drag windows outside of main one to the left;
*) winbox - make some settings look more consistent;
*) winbox - allot to specify IPv6 address in routing filter prefix;
*) winbox - make possible to open IPv6 routes without crashing;
*) winbox - improved item reordering in long lists;
*) winbox - improved SNMP configuration support;
*) winbox - added support for KVM configuration;
*) winbox - added support for Traffic Engineering configuration;
*) ovpn - make ovpn client work with OpenVPN v2.1.3;
*) lcd - support Crystalfontz 631,633
also support for Crystalfontz lcd contrast setting is added;
*) console - fixed missing return value of the ping command when executed
from a scheduler entry;
*) console - 'ping' command with specified value of 'interface' always forced
"arp-ping=yes", fixed;
*) routing - fixed problem with 'check-gateway' status update that could get
triggered when multiple routes with different values of 'target-scope'
and 'check-gateway' referenced the same gateway IP address;
*) store - allow to use external disks;
*) modem firmware directory can be specified in /port firmware
Gobi users should change this setting or directory name;
*) ups - support USB UPS on RB4xx as well;
*) snmp - fix BER encoding for some INTEGER based values;
*) snmp - provide proxy stats using SQUID-MIB;
*) snmp - provide ups info using UPS-MIB;
*) snmp - provide external storage information;
*) wireless nv2 - add missing statistics fields;
*) wireless - add per-chain signal strength fields;
*) added hotspot html variable "host-ip";
*) fixed pcq queue type;
*) fixed leds on RB750;
*) added hotspot html variable "host-ip";
*) wireless nv2 - fixed station-wds mode multicast problem;
*) wireless nv2 - fixed occasional encrypted link stalls;

What's new in 5.0rc3 (2010-Oct-29 09:02):

*) lcd - support Crystalfontz 635
*) wireless nv2 - fix stalls on encrypted 11n links using high rates;
*) wireless nv2 - fix encryption related kernel crash;
*) sstp - fixed memory leak;
*) fixed problem - bad boot/kernel crc was reported on powerpc boards
when in fact it was good;

What's new in 5.0rc2 (2010-Oct-27 16:20):

*) wireless nv2 - encryption support;
*) tool fetch - support ftp STOR;
*) ospf - fixed crash when working with external LSA that contain
forwarding addess;
*) ipsec - supports NAT-T drafts;
*) ipsec - added debug logging, to maintain same log verbosity as before with
'ipsec' topic now use topics 'ipsec,debug,!packet';
*) ipsec - make it work with EoIP, GRE, PPTP and L2TP;
*) support for Atheros AR9271 wireless chip;
*) added support for more Intel 82575/82576 PCI-Express Gigabit Ethernet cards;
*) added support for idle detection on RB1xx/RB5xx in /tool profile;
*) fixed Wireless manual tx power configuration for 11n rates in WinBox;
*) fixed torch;

What's new in 5.0rc1 (2010-Sep-17 13:58):

*) wireless nv2 - add WDS support;
*) added ability to monitor cpu usage by task (/tool profile);
*) added support for RPS (Receive Packet Steering) on multicore systems;
*) added cisco compatible gre tunnels;
*) fix simple queues on multicore (fixes intel 82576 crash/reboot);
*) fixed sstp memory leak;
*) winbox - fixed ability to configure RB1100 switches;
*) ssh - fix possible crashing;
*) snmp - fix GET request processing;
*) ipsec - added ability to specify ID_USER_FQDN peer identity;
*) ipsec - encypt last IKE phase 1 packet when in aggresive mode as initiator;
*) wireless nv2 - added nv2-cell-radius parameter to specify distance
in km to farthest client on AP;
*) wireless nv2 - fix transmit stall issue for non-11n chips;
*) wireless - fix x86 nstreme multiprocessor hang;
*) made user manager web interface work again;
*) updated drivers and kernel (to linux-2.6.35);

What's new in 5.0beta6 (2010-Aug-10 13:22):

*) sstp - fixed memory leak;
*) wireless - changed band setting and added channel-width setting
*) wireless - support for 11n rates in 5&10mhz channels
*) wireless nv2 - fixed multiple problems including occasional tx stall;
*) made gps accessible through SNMP;
*) snmp - added GETBULK support, no more table caching - solves problems
with huge tables, routing tables currently are not available;
*) ssh - fixed public key authentication in case
when client is not verifying if server will accept the key;
*) fixed problem - MetaROUTER did not work on RB800, RB1000 & RB1100;

*) user manager is not working - will be fixed in next version;
*) intel 82576 (uncommon expensive chip) crash/reboot to be fixed in
next release;

What's new in 5.0beta5 (2010-Jul-23 14:50):

*) email - supports multiple CCs
*) fix 5&10MHz channel support for 11n cards;
*) ssh - fix ssh client crash;
*) ssh - password authentication is disabled for users with public keys;
*) ping - fixed ping packet-loss calculation;

What's new in 5.0beta4 (2010-Jun-28 16:17):

*) console - /ping command again returns number of ping responses received,
didn't work in 5.0beta3;
*) added ability to monitor each cpu core usage;
*) added support for SATA,SCSI & USB CD-ROMs in CD installer;
*) fixed problem - IRQ balancer did not use correct CPU core
on non auto MSI irqs after reboot;
*) fixed memory leak;
*) route - new property 'vrf-interface' (for static and dhcp routes),
automatically updates 'routing-mark' of the route to keep it in the same
VRF as the specified interface;

What's new in 5.0beta3 (2010-Jun-17 13:46):

*) hotspot - drop hotspot specific tcp connections from non-hotspot clients
already at firewall;
*) lcd - added support for AX89063
*) console - output of '/ping' and '/tool traceroute' commands is more
in line with the rest of the console commands;
*) api - '/ping' and '/tool traceroute' commands are fully functional;
*) console - added 'server' and 'server-port' arguments to '/resolve' command;
*) lcd - show free/total memory in units of million bytes (MB);
*) lcd - added page that shows system identity;
*) sstp - made it work with Windows 7;
*) sstp server - client reconnects did not work;
*) winbox - implemented proper maximize support for inner windows;
*) fix 5&10MHz channel support for 11n cards;
*) added IRQ balancer;
*) enabled PCI MSI on i386 multicore setups;

What's new in 5.0beta2 (2010-Apr-30 11:24):

*) added wireless distance setting, removed ack-timeout;
*) improved 802.11 operation for outdoor distances;
*) fixed sstp on x86;
*) console - removed 'delay' argument from '/system scheduler add' command;
*) console - remove 'comment=""' values from export;
*) console - updated '/system script job':
- also show active login sessions here;
- new read-only property 'type' with values "command", "login"
or "api-login" for running commands and either kind of login sessions;
- new optional read-only property 'parent' with id of the job that
has spawned this one;
*) console - changed "started" property of '/system script job' to use
local time;
*) console - new property 'type' in '/system script job'
*) console - added '/port remote-access export' command;
*) console - fixed bug that caused "cannot set ..." error when using
some properties in 'find' commands;
*) show old software id in export file header;
*) api - can supply password to '/system/upgrade/upgrade-package-source/add';
*) api - 'print' command was not showing values of some properties
such as 'servers' in "/ip/dns";
*) api - fixed api login sessions not dissapearing from '/user active' after
termination;
*) '/user active' now lists type of api connections as 'api';
*) added support for hardware watchdog on RB1000 & RB800;
*) added support for ASIX AX88xxx based USB Ethernet Adapters on RB4xx;
*) fixed problem - ipv6 traffic was not bridged if ipv6 package was not enabled;
*) fixed getting interface stats in dude;
*) fixed metarouter stability problem on RB400s & RB750s;
*) fixed metarouter - it didn't work on RB1000 with 2Gb;
*) fixed metarouter - it locked up on RB800;
*) fixed problem - SFQ queues did not work on interfaces (wireless) if none
of simple or tree queues were added;
*) fixed RB800 temperature;
*) fixed problem - WinBox crashed while opening VAP interface;
*) dhcp server - fixed possible inactive dhcp server in case of many
dhcp leases with address-pool enabled;
*) dhcp server - show non-printable option 82 agent-circuit-id and
agent-remote-id values in hexadecimal notation
(in the same way as client-id is shown);

What's new in 5.0beta1 (2010-Mar-31 09:17):

*) updated drivers and kernel (to linux-2.6.32.5);
*) ssh is now completely rewritten (supports connection forwarding, only DSA keys);
*) added support for SSTP protocol (PPP over TLS);
*) added support for multiple Intel Ethernet cards;
*) added support for IPv6 over PPP
(enabled by default if ipv6 package is installed),
link-local addresses are assigned, and server can issue IPv6 global prefixes
to clients per ppp secret or RADIUS reply (Framed-IPv6-Prefix);
*) added proper support for MPLS over PPP (by default it is now disabled);
*) fixed RB800 temperature;
*) silentboot feature updated;
*) WinBox - any file dropped on WinBox will be uploaded to router;
*) multicast - fixed possible crash during PIM startup;
*) report platform name in "/sysrem resource";
*) fixed problem - vlans were not working on RB750 ether1;
*) fixed mac address handling on RB750, some specific arp requests did not work;
*) more than two dns servers allowed in /ip dns;
*) sniffer and torch could process packet from other interfaces;
*) ospf - fixed DR and BDR election;
*) ospf - changed "/routing ospf route" to show type 2 metric instead of
internal metric for type 2 external routes;
*) added IPv6 support to trafflow (v9 only);
*) rewritten user-manager (formerly known as userman-test);
*) dns cache rotates order of records in reply messages

What's new in 4.6:

*) only accept dotted decimal notation for IP addresses. Use of numbers
with leading zero, numbers larger than 255 and non-decimal numbers
is not accepted (but still can omit third or second and third numbers,
if they are zero);
*) email - user must enable tls explicitly
*) remove limit on number of multicast enabled interfaces, maximum was 32;
*) dhcp server - show last-seen time for leases;
*) fixed - when closing winbox terminal window with active serial-terminal
console command, serial port sometimes was left in acquired state;

What's new in 4.5:

*) ipsec - added blowfish, twofish, and camellia encryption algorithms;
*) fixed static route removing;
*) fixed DHCP client compatibility with some DHCP servers;
*) added static multi-cast route support;
*) fixed temperature monitor on RB800 and RB450G;
*) user manager - payment bug fix - now able to buy
credits without extend price specified;

What's new in 4.4:

*) snmp - fixed snmp version three;
*) snmp - fixed vlan interface speed;
*) hotspot - fixed radius variables in hotspot html pages;
*) removed support for xen;
*) routing - added support for BFD protocol;
*) fixed problem - MetaROUTER sometimes froze on RB4xx;
*) fixed OSPFv3 on bridge interfaces;

What's new in 4.3:

*) kvm - vnc support, booting from cdrom image
*) API - fixed possible crash when running concurrent commands;
*) console - fixed logging commands: 'warning', 'error' and 'debug' were
all using 'info' topic;
*) bgp - added routing-table configuration option for instances;
*) bgp - added 'as-override' and 'passive' configuration options for peers;
*) bgp - added support for Site of Origin extended communities;
*) bgp - fixed some network issues;
*) ospf - fixed problem: when last neighbor on multi-access interface disappeared,
incorrect RouterLSA was generated on designated router;
*) metarouter - allow to specify metarouter's memory size when importing image;
*) firewall - added 'routing-table' matcher;
*) fixed problem - e1000 driver did not work in virtual machines;

What's new in 4.2:

*) fixed problem - RB450G ethernet did not work if one of the ports was disabled;
*) fixed ethernet of RB433 with switch chip IP175D;
*) fixed route attribute problem;
*) fixed route next-hops falling under multiple connected routes;

What's new in 4.1:

*) fixed problem - RB750 (clocked at 300MHz) Ethernet did not work;
*) fixed problem - routes on some interfaces (like VLAN) were not activated;
*) ppp, gps, sms, serial terminal - allow use of different channels
on same port across multiple programs simultaneous
*) dhcp server - added support for dynamic address-list entries;
*) hotspot - added support for dynamic address-list entries;
*) hotspot - fixed redirect after login in case if client gets new IP address
(problem introduced in 3.28);

What's new in 4.0:

*) IT87XX hardware monitoring sensor support;
*) kvm allows to choose emulated nic model;
*) hotspot - fixed redirect after login in case if client gets new IP address
(problem introduced in 3.28);
*) hotspot - fixed redirect after login in case if client gets new IP address;
*) console - commands like 'monitor', 'torch' and others that periodically
refresh information sometimes failed to work when started from
the scheduler;
*) console - scheduled scripts no longer require 'test' policy to run;
*) console - fix issues with scripts that contain lines with trailing spaces;
*) console - add back compatibility with old scripts that use space instead
of '=' to separate argument name and value;
*) console - following fixes:
- accept item numbers when prompted by command to specify item;
- argument names without '=' were matched even when expecting unnamed
value; this broke code such as:
:foreach i in=1,2,3 do {}
here 'i' was matched as argument name "in";
- 'tab' key did not automatically append '=' after complete argument
names;

What's new in 4.0rc1:

*) console - removed support for Lua (will be reintroduced later);
*) incorporated all the bug fixes since v3.30;
*) port remote-access - added 'log-file' property. If value is a non-empty
string, then all data that is read from the port is appended to a file
with that name, regardless of the active remote connection;
*) console - removed '/user' from the output of top level '/export' command,
still can be exported by '/user export';

What's new in 4.0beta4:

*) routing - changed BGP network and default-originate behavior;
*) web proxy - allow to edit error page;
*) console - terminal window size change now does not trigger full terminal
reset;
*) mesh protocol - improved loop prevention (becomes incompatible with earlier versions);

*) incorporated all the bug fixes since v3.27;

What's new in 4.0beta3:

*) added support for 802.11n atheros based wireless cards;
*) added ability to run other OSs in MetaROUTERs;
*) console: Lua scripting language. http://wiki.mikrotik.com/wiki/Lua
*) console: added nstreme-dual OIDs;
*) incorporated all the bug fixes since v3.23;

What's new in 4.0beta2:

*) console: added 'without-paging' argument to 'monitor' commands;
*) console: now 'without-paging' and 'interval' arguments in of 'print'
commands work together. Printing can be stopped by pressing 'q' or
ctrl-c, any other key triggers printing;
*) incorporated all the bug fixes since v3.22;
*) fixed TFTP server logging;
*) fixed problem - "/system upgrade" did not show proper package
architecture and was unable to fetch new packages;

What's new in 4.0beta1:

*) added support for MetaROUTERs;
*) all test packages are regular ones;
*) console - can mix named and unnamed arguments, can use names for unnamed
argument values. For example all of the following commands are
accepted now:
/ping 10.11.12.13 count=4
/ping address=10.11.12.13 count=4
/ping count=4 10.11.12.13

Friday, October 7, 2011

Pengamanan Mikrotik dari Scan Winbox dan Neighbour

Langsung saja buka winbox anda dan coba sendiri
Dengan menjalankan IP > Neighbor kita bisa melihat router mikrotik lainnya yang secara fisik terhubung dengan router kita melalui jaringan di provider kita.
Untuk itu kita bisa melindunginya dengan berbagai cara misalnya memblok scan dari winbox dan neighbor
kita.
Berikut cara paling mudah nya :

admin@mikrotik] interface bridge> filter print
Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic
0 ;;; block discovery mikrotik
chain=forward in-interface=ether1 mac-protocol=ip dst-port=5678
ip-protocol=udp action=drop
1 ;;; block discovery mikrotik
chain=input in-interface=ether1 mac-protocol=ip dst-port=5678
ip-protocol=udp action=drop
2 ;;; block discovery mikrotik
chain=output mac-protocol=ip dst-port=5678 ip-protocol=udp action=drop
3 ;;; block discovery mikrotik
chain=input in-interface=ether1 mac-protocol=ip dst-port=8291
ip-protocol=tcp action=drop
4 ;;; block winbox mikrotik
chain=forward in-interface=ether1 mac-protocol=ip dst-port=8291
ip-protocol=tcp action=drop
5 ;;; block request DHCP
chain=input mac-protocol=ip dst-port=68 ip-protocol=udp action=drop
6 ;;; block request DHCP
chain=forward mac-protocol=ip dst-port=68 ip-protocol=udp action=drop
7 ;;; block request DHCP
chain=output mac-protocol=ip dst-port=68 ip-protocol=udp action=drop

Dengan perintah tersebut kita bisa menutup beberapa scan terutama yang menggunakan winbox dan ip
neighbor. Port diatas adalah bagian dari share Mikrotik RouterOS yang memang di perlukan untuk
monitoring.


How To Block Traceroute and Ping

Sedikit share saja tentang cara bikin rule untuk blok traceroute dan ping
contoh topologi nya seperti ini :

ISP----MIKROTIK---CLIENT

tetapi dengan trace route dia bisa dapat nomor ip yang sejajar dengan Interface mikrotik yang menuju
internet, seperti ini

ISP-----MIKROTIK---------CLIENT
-----CLIENT"JAGO"


untuk menanggulangi kita bisa bikin rule pada firewall seperti ini
/ip firewall filter add chain=forward protocol=icmp icmp-options=11:0 action=drop comment="Drop Traceroute"
/ip firewall filter add chain=forward protocol=icmp icmp-options=3:3 action=drop comment="Drop Traceroute"
untuk membatasi ping kita buat rule seperti ini :
/ip firewall filter add chain=input action=accept protocol=icmp limit=50/5s,2
silahkan di coba dulu.




dasar tcp/ip


Dasar TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) adalah satu set aturan standar
komunikasi data yang digunakan dalam proses transfer data dari satu komputer ke komputer lain di jaringan komputer tanpa melihat perbedaan jenis hardware.
Protokol TCP/IP dikembangkan dalam riset pertama kali oleh Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) di Amerika Serikat dan paling banyak digunakan saat ini yang implementasinya dalam bentuk perangkat lunak (software) di system operasi

1. Network Access Layer
Bertanggung jawab mengirim dan menerima data dari dan ke media fisik. Tiap protokol pada layer ini harus mampu menerjemahkan sinyal listrik menjadi data digital yang dimengerti komputer, ethernet, token ring, dan dial-up modem yang berjalan di atas Public Switched Telephone Network ( PSTN), Integrated Services Digitel Network (ISDN), serta Asynchronus Transfer Mode (ATM).

2. Internet Layer
Bertanggungjawab dalam proses pengiriman paket ke alamat yang tepat. Ada beberapa macam protokol di dalamnya, misalnya Internet Protocol (IP), Address Resolution Protocol (AR P), dan Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

3. Host to Host Layer
Bertanggung jawab untuk mengadakan komunikasi antara dua host/komputer. Ada dua macam protokol didalamnya, yaitu
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) dan User Datagram Protocol (UDP ).

4. Application Layer
Bertanggung jawab untuk menampilkan semua aplikasi yang menggunakan protocol TCP/IP.
Sebagai contoh adalah Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), dan Telnet.
Berikut ini perbandingan referensi lapisan-lapisan layer model
Open Sistem
Interconnection
(OSI) dengan layer model sistem operasi Linux yang digunakan di penelitian ini:
Protokol TCP dan UDP
Protokol TCP/IP memiliki standar segmen yang didefinisikan dalam beberapa bagian Berikut:
Source Port 16 bit angka yang menunjukkan port asal.
Destination Port 16 bit angka yang menunjukkan port tujuan.
Sequence Number
dari data yang datang.
32 bit angka yang digunakan untuk memastikan urutan yang benar
Acknowledgment Number 4 bit untuk menandakan koneksi yang berhasil.
Data Offset
32 bit indikasi data pertama.
Reserved
6 bit diset 0.
Control Bit 6 bit untuk URG, ACK, PSH, RST, SYN, FIN.
Window 16 bit angka dari oktet yang diterima oleh pengirim.
Checksum 16 bit checksum yang telah dikalkulasi dari Field header dan data.
Urgent Pointer 16 bit mengindikasikan akhir dari data yang penting.
Option variable bit maximum TCP segment size.
Padding variable bit memenuhi panjang header merupakan kelipatan 32 bit.
Data data dari protokol lapis atas.
TCP dan UDP menggunakan nomor port (atau soket) untuk melewatkan informasi ke lapis
yang lebih atas. Nomor port digunakan untuk membedakan aplikasi yang berbeda yang melewati jaringan pada saat yang bersamaan.
Pengembang software a plikasi telah sepakat untuk menggunakan nomor-nomor port yang didefinisikan dalam RFC 1700 dan RFC 3232. Suatu komunikasi yang tidak melibatkan suatu aplikasi dengan nomor port yang sudah dikenal, akan diberikan nomor-nomor port yang diambil secara random dari suatu rentang tertentu. Nomor-nomor
port ini digunakan sebagai alamat sumber dan tujuan dalam segmen TCP. Sesuai dengan RFC 2990 dan rekomendasi ITU E.800 pada tahun 1994 memberikan definisi QoS sebagai suatu kumpulan dari pengaruh performansi layanan yang menentukan tingkat kepuasan dari user terhadap suatu layanan. Sesuai dengan tujuan QoS, administrator dapat memberikan prioritas trafik tertentu. Suatu jaringan, mungkin saja terdiri dari satu atau beberapa teknologi data link layer yang mampu diimplementasikan QoS sesuai karakteristik teknologinya, misalnya:
Frame Relay, Ethernet, Token Ring, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP).
Sebuah jaringan dengan QoS-enabled dapat dibuat dengan beberapa teknologi yang berbeda. Teknologi tersebut juga dibangun pada model QoS yang berbeda.
Sebuah model QoS terdiri dari beberapa aspek berikut ini:
a. Scope menetapkan jarak logic dimana sebuah model layanan disediakan.
b. Granularity menetapkan satuan terkecil yang diperlakukan oleh sebuah model layanan.
c. Time scale menetapkan sifat granularity dalam satuan waktu dimana sebuah model layanan disediakan.
d. Control model menetapkan entity yang mengambil kontrol terhadap jaringan dan bagaimana cara melakukannya. Sebagai contoh adalah kontrol yang dapat dilakukan pada jaringan atau end-system.
Sedangkan salah satu model QoS yang dapat diaplikasikan adalah packet scheduling atau disiplin antrian atau penjadwalan paket.
Karakteristik QoS

Banyak aplikasi yang tidak begitu sensitif terhadap network congestion. Sebagai contoh File Transfer Protocol (FTP) memiliki toleransi yang besar untuk network delay dan terbatasnya bandwidth .
Berbeda dengan aplikasi-aplikasi baru seperti audio dan video yang pada umumnya sensitif terhadap delay , dalam hal ini QoS dapat digunakan untuk menyediakan jaminan layanan untuk aplikasi-aplikasi tersebut.
Ada empat layanan yang digunakan untuk pengukuran parameter QoS , berikut ini adalah macam layanan tersebut:

1. Bandwidth merupakan rate transfer data maksimal yang dapat diteruskan antara dua titik.
Bandwidth yang dibutuhkan untuk aplikasi suara dipengaruhi oleh algoritma kompresi yang digunakan.
Sebagai contoh, header kompresi Real Time Protocol (RTP) dan teknik deteksi aktifitas dapat digunakan untuk mengurangi bandwidth yang digunakan oleh panggilan suara dalam jangkauan 11.2 kbps sampai 50 kbps. Aplikasi video membutuhkan koneksi bandwidth yang lebih tinggi dari 20 sampai 64 Kbps untuk kualitas dan resolusi rendah, sebesar 386 Kbps atau lebih untuk kualitas menengah dan sampai 15 mbps untuk kualitas broadcast .

2. Delay merupakan waktu yang dibutuhkan oleh data untuk menempuh jarak dari asal ke tujuan.
Delay dari pengirim ke penerima pada dasarnya tersusun atas hardware lat ency, delay akses, dan delay transmisi.
Delay yang paling sering dialami oleh trafik yang lewat adalah delay transmisi. Dalam rekomendasi G.114 International Telecommunication Union (ITU) telah menspesifikasikan sebuah jangkuan 0-150 milidetik sebagai delay jaringan yang dapat diterima untuk aplikasi suara.

3. Delay Variation merupakan variasi delay end-to-end paket-paket yang diterima. Dimana pengiriman paket dilakukan secara c ontinuous stream.

4. Losses, dimana kemungkinan hilangnya paket saat proses pengiriman. Dua aplikasi yang sensitif terhadap
loss adalah voice dan high definition video.
Tabel berikut ini mengilustrasikan hubungan Delay Variation dan loss sesuai tingkat kualitas.


Kualitas
Packet Loss (%)
Delay Variation (Milidetik)
Sempurna
0
0
Baik
3
75
Menengah
10
125
Buruk
25
225